ARTERIAL PULSE WAVE ANALYSIS
Mr. Trivedi’s Cardio– circulatory system is suggesting the absence of aging process as seen in the results of Arterial Pulse Wave Analysis testing performed by Dr. John Levin. This is a non-invasive method of accurately measuring the elasticity and integrity of the blood vessels, their ability to transmit force along the arterial wall from the aorta to the smallest arterioles, and the presence of arterial, atherosclerotic plaquing, also called hardening of the arteries. There are three components to this test, the measurement of plaquing, elasticity and ability of the blood vessels to transmit forces. The analysis was done using Sphygmocor instrument approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – USA.
Two components of the Arterial Pulse Analysis showed that his blood vessels have the maximum amount of elasticity that the technology could measure with absolutely no plaquing observed.
The elasticity of blood vessels, called the Augmentation Index, is correlated with atherosclerotic, fatty plaqing along the lining of the blood vessels. The more elastic a blood vessel is the less plaquing there is. When a blood vessel is less elastic, or hard, plaquing is found. The presence of plaquing is considered a normal part of the aging process and begins in the early childhood. The doctor who performed the test has been in practice for over 40 years and stated that he had never come across a person with maximum elasticity and no plaquing at all.
The other unique finding in Mr. Trivedi’s body was the ability of his blood vessels to transmit the force of the heart contraction from the thick aorta at the heart to the smallest arterioles in the most distant parts of the body.
As the heart beats, the force that pushes the blood out to the furthest part of the body has to be transmitted along the blood vessels and the faster the speed of this transmission the healthier the blood vessels are. In the case of his blood vessels, his transmission speed was beyond the maximum limit designated by the technology, better than many athletes although Mr. Trivedi does not follow any exercise.
In contrast, in the state of rest, his pulse rate is 91 beats per minute. A fast pulse rate is possible in a person who is sick or well, the difference is that a healthy person has a high pulse rate and a strong, force transmitted along their blood vessels, which was demonstrated in Mr. Trivedi’s test results. These findings are inexplicable, according to the doctor who performed and interpreted the tests, as the other findings of maximum elasticity, 0% plaqing and maximum force transmission should be correlated with a very slow pulse rate.
To summarize, Mr. Trivedi’s blood vessels have maximum elasticity, no plaqing at all, and are able to transmit forces better than the most athletic people in the world and at the same time his heart is working at a very high rate for extended periods of time. His cardio-circulatory system is unique in its functioning.
Excerpts from medical journals
About Dr. John Levin
Dr. John Levin is a specialist in Anti-Aging Medicine based in Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Dr. Levin has been in private practice for over 40 years in AUSTRALIA with a specialty in Anti-Aging Medicine. Dr. Levin is trained in the use of Arterial Pulse Wave Analysis, a diagnostic test used for cardiology research.
Excerpts from medical journals
Early Detection of vascular disease through arterial wave form analysis
Jay N Cohn,
MD, Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School
Cardiovascular Division,Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
Past President of the American Society of Hypertension
Cardiovascular specialists spend considerable effort on evaluating heart function, including electrocardiograms, echocardiograms and stress tests, but have been unable to assess the functional and structural abnormality of the arteries prior to the late phase of arterial ob- struction (as determined by angiography).’ ‘By assessing the elasticity of the arterial system, clinical investigators have been able to identify a reduction in arterial elasticity in patients without evidence of traditional risk factors, suggesting the early presence of vascular disease.
Furthermore, clinical research data has demonstrated that individuals with heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension and diabetes typically exhibit a loss of arterial elasticity. These abnormal blood vessel changes often appear to precede overt signs of cardiovascular disease and the occurrence of a heart attack or stroke by many years.’ ‘Dozens of clinical research studies and pharmaceutical trials have already been completed using this technology, involving more than 2,500 subjects, and resulting in more than 30 scientific articles being published in peer-reviewed medical journals.’
Arterial stiffness and prediction of cardiovascular risk.
Journal of Hypertension 2002, 20:2337-2340
Bronwyn A. Kingwell and C D Gatzka
Baker Heart Research Unit Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
‘The assessment of arterial stiffness is an attractive candidate for a number of reasons. Arterial stiffness is associated with severity of coronary artery disease, severity of carotid artery disease, predicts future morbidity and mortality and can be assessed automatically and non-invasively.’
From theory into practice: arterial haemodvnamics in clinical hypertension
Journal of Hypertension 2002, 20:1901 – 1915
Michael F. O’Rourke – Professor of Cardiology St.Vincent’s Hosp. Darlinghurst NSW
The information that the pulse affords is of so great importance and so often consulted, surely it must be to our advantage to appreciate fully all it tells us and to draw from it all that it is capable of imparting.
This diagnostic test has a look at how well your heart Is operating. When you look at your SphygmoCor report you will see three (3) measurements.
- Ejection Duration
When our heart beats it has a time when it is working (systole) and a time when it is resting (diastole).The ejection duration is the measurement of how much time the heart is spending at work. If the heart is spending too much time working this measurement will be high. A higher than normal measurement means the heart is working longer than it should each cycle.
- Augmentation Index
High cholesterol, smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure can all cause the vessels that take blood from the heart (the arteries) to become stiffer. When the arteries become stiffer the heart must work harder to supply oxygen to the heart muscles and the other vital organs of the body. The augmentation index measures the stiffness of the arteries.
- BuckBerg Ratio
When the heart is resting (diastole) the heart’s pumping muscles are being supplied with oxygen. The BuckBerg Ratio compares the amount of oxygen being supplied to the heart’s pumping muscles during rest to the amount of work the heart pumping muscles have to do during systole when they are working. It is better to have more oxygen and less work, which is the case when the Buckberg Ratio is high.